Think Twice: How the Gut’s “Second Brain” Influences Mood and Well-Being

Think Twice: How the Gut’s “Second Brain” Influences Mood and Well-Being
By Adam Hadhazy

As Olympians go for the gold in Vancouver, even the steeliest are likely to experience that familiar feeling of “butterflies” in the stomach. Underlying this sensation is an often-overlooked network of neurons lining our guts that is so extensive some scientists have nicknamed it our “second brain”.

A deeper understanding of this mass of neural tissue, filled with important neurotransmitters, is revealing that it does much more than merely handle digestion or inflict the occasional nervous pang. The little brain in our innards, in connection with the big one in our skulls, partly determines our mental state and plays key roles in certain diseases throughout the body.

Although its influence is far-reaching, the second brain is not the seat of any conscious thoughts or decision-making.

“The second brain doesn’t help with the great thought processes…religion, philosophy and poetry is left to the brain in the head,” says Michael Gershon, chairman of the Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology at New York–Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center, an expert in the nascent field of neurogastroenterology and author of the 1998 book The Second Brain (HarperCollins).

Technically known as the enteric nervous system, the second brain consists of sheaths of neurons embedded in the walls of the long tube of our gut, or alimentary canal, which measures about nine meters end to end from the esophagus to the anus. This multitude of neurons in the enteric nervous system enables us to “feel” the inner world of our gut and its contents. Much of this neural firepower comes to bear in the 100 million neurons, more than in either the spinal cord or the peripheral nervous system, Gershon says.

This multitude of neurons in the enteric nervous system enables us to “feel” the inner world of our gut and its contents. Much of this neural firepower comes to bear in the elaborate daily grind of digestion. Breaking down food, absorbing nutrients, and expelling of waste requires chemical processing, mechanical mixing and rhythmic muscle contractions that move everything on down the line.

Thus equipped with its own reflexes and senses, the second brain can control gut behavior independently of the brain, Gershon says. We likely evolved this intricate web of nerves to perform digestion and excretion “on site,” rather than remotely from our brains through the middleman of the spinal cord. “The brain in the head doesn’t need to get its hands dirty with the messy business of digestion, which is delegated to the brain in the gut,” Gershon says. He and other researchers explain, however, that the second brain’s complexity likely cannot be interpreted through this process alone.

“The system is way too complicated to have evolved only to make sure things move out of your colon,” says Emeran Mayer, professor of physiology, psychiatry and biobehavioral sciences at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles (U.C.L.A.). For example, scientists were shocked to learn that about 90 percent of the fibers in the primary visceral nerve, the vagus, carry information from the gut to the brain and not the other way around. “Some of that info is decidedly unpleasant,” Gershon says.

The second brain informs our state of mind in other more obscure ways, as well. “A big part of our emotions are probably influenced by the nerves in our gut,” Mayer says. Butterflies in the stomach—signaling in the gut as part of our physiological stress response, Gershon says—is but one example. Although gastrointestinal (GI) turmoil can sour one’s moods, everyday emotional well-being may rely on messages from the brain below to the brain above. For example, electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve—a useful treatment for depression—may mimic these signals, Gershon says.

READ MORE HERE

 

Tags: Alzheimer, CELIAC DISEASE, Dementia, depression, diet, Gluten Free, Health Today, Mental Health, Second Brain, Serotonin, wheat

Related Posts

by
Ditch the Diet Live the Lifestyle
Previous Post Next Post

Comments

  1. Reply

    Reblogged this on Begone, Gluten!.

  2. Reply

    Very interesting and well researched. Thanks for the information.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

0 shares

Come Be Social :)

Facebook
Twitter
INSTAGRAM
PINTEREST
Google+
RSS

Hi, I’m Kirsten

Kirsten is a Registered Dietician in training and a Gluten Free Nutrition Consultant. She has a Bachelors of Science from Illinois State and is working on her second degree at Metropolitan State University in Denver, in the Nutrition & Dietetics program. After graduation, she will pursue certification towards becoming a Registered Dietitian.

Kirsten was diagnosed w/ Celiac disease in 2010, her goal is to provide a path for healthy living to individuals who are seeking a tailored made lifestyle specific to them and their needs.

Kirsten believes that “everyone is different, there’s not one diet that can work for everyone. “Diet to me means short-term, so let’s change diet into ‘lifestyle change’ instead and think long-term. Make healthier decisions not just today but for the years ahead of us as well.”

Living the gluten free lifestyle is not an easy one and can be very overwhelming: from grocery shopping and social events, to deglutening your own household. Kirsten will help you walk you navigate the gluten-free maze with tips, tricks, humor, healthy recipes and more.

Please contact me for more information –  glutenfreegal1@gmail.com

Ditch the Diet Live the Lifestyle ©

Subscribe Today for Free Healthly Living Tips

error

Find More Following GlutenFreeGal

%d bloggers like this: